The Berlin Conference of 1884-1885, also known as the Congolese Conference or Conference on West Africa, regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the period of New Imperialism and coincided with the sudden rise of Germany as an imperial power. The conference was organised by Otto von Bismarck, Germany`s first Chancellor. Its outcome, the general act of the Berlin conference, can be seen as a formalization of the Scramble for Africa, but some historians warn against the emphasis on its role in the colonial division of Africa and draw attention to the bilateral agreements reached before and after the conference.   The conference helped launch a period of enhanced colonial activities by European powers that eliminated or oversized most of the existing forms of African autonomy and autonomy.  Before the conference, European diplomats approached African governments in the same way as in the Western Hemisphere by linking to local trade networks. In the early 1800s, European demand for ivory, which was then often used in the manufacture of luxury goods, led many European traders to African domestic markets.  At that time, European spheres of power and influence were limited to African coasts, Europeans having established until that date only commercial posts.  The conference opened on November 15, 1884 and continued until closing on February 26, 1885.  The number of plenipotentiaries varied from country to country, but these 14 countries sent representatives to participate in the Berlin Conference and sign the following Berlin Law: Other historians debate the historical legal implications of international law. The emphasis on the principle of efficiency and spheres of influence has resulted in the Berlin Conference not being an important development in international law and imperialism.
 Some argued that the conference was rather a failure and that Germany was responsible for Scramble for Africa.  This principle, along with other writings at the conference, allowed Europeans to conquer Africa, but to do as little as possible to manage or control it. The principle does not apply so much to the hinterland of Africa at the time of the conference. From this was born the “hinterland theory” which, basically, gave any coastal colonial power the right to claim political influence over an undetermined amount of inland land. . . .